Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)

1) FAQ's 'I+ Trainer' (PDF)


I+ Software User Manuals

2) 'I+ Trainer' User Manual (PDF)

3) 'I+ Manager' User Manual (PDF)



4) Marteloscope contact list (PDF)

5) Tree Microhabitat Catalogue

 The catalogue offers an accessible typology for identifying small and valuable structures for biodiversity. It was developed by a experts and serves as a field guide. The vast array of existing tree microhabitats (TreMs) is subdivided into a few concise categories of saproxylic (cavities, injuries and wounds, bark, deadwood) and epixylic (deformations, epiphytes, nests) structures that can serve as shelter or home for different flora and fauna. TreMs are input for elaborating a habitat value for each tree in a Marteloscope. This information can be retrieved in the course of field exercises using the I+ software. It is available in the following languages:


Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, North Macedonian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish and Ukrainian

6) The tree microhabitat catalogue App

The phone App was developed as a mobile field support for identifying biodiversity relevant tree microhabitat structures. Its content mirrors the tree microhabitat catalogue and is currently available in the following languages: Czech, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese. The App is freely available and runs on Android and Apple devices.

Google Play Store (Link)

App Store (Link)


7) Marteloscope Data Entry Sheet: template for submitting Marteloscope dataset to 'I+ Data Repository' (XLS)

8) Marteloscope exercises – 'guidance for trainers' (PDF)

9) Marteloscopes - 'description of parameters and assessment procedures' (PDF)

10) Activity fact sheets of events around Marteloscopes

        - April 2017 to April 2020 (PDF)
        - December 2013 to December 2016 (PDF)

11) Wise use of our forests: the integrative approach. 20 minute feature film in three languages (EN, DE, FR). 



Cosyns, H., Kraus, D., Krumm, F., Schulz, T., Pyttel, P., 2018. Reconciling the trade-off between economic and ecological objectives in habitat-tree selection: A comparison between students, foresters and forestry trainers. Forest Science. Volume 65. Issue 2. 223–234.

Kraus, D., Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Bütler, R., Cosyns, H., Courbaud, B., Larrieu, L., Mergner, U., Pyttel, P., Varis, S., Wilhelm, G., Witz, M., Zenner, E. and Zudin, S., 2018. Seeing is building better understanding - the Integrate+ Marteloscopes Integrate+ Technical Report. Marteloscopes (2018) 26:3.

Kraus D., Schuck A., Bebi P., Blaschke M., Bütler R., Flade M., Heintz W., Krumm F., Lachat T., Larrieu L., Lehnerova L., Levin M., Mergner U., Pach M., Paillet Y., Pyttel P., Rydkvist T., Santopuoli G., Sever K., Sturm K., Vandekerkhove K., Winter S., Witz, M. (2017). Spatially explicit database of tree related microhabitats (TreMs). Version 1.2. Integrate+ project. Version 1.6. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA). Occurrence Dataset accessed via on 2017-07-31.

Kraus, D., Schuck, A. 2017. Wise use of our forests: the integrative approach. Integrate+ Film script.

Kraus, D., Schuck, A., 2016. Mikrohabitatstrukturen im Wald: Ein Schlüssel zur Erhaltung von gefährdeten Arten. Anliegen Natur 38 (1), 2016. 99 – 101.

Kraus, D., Bütler, R., Krumm, F., Lachat, T., Larrieu, L., Mergner, U., Paillet, Y., Rydkvist, T., Schuck, A., and Winter, S., 2016. Smart phone application: Catalogue of tree microhabitats - field reference list. App contents derived from: Catalogue of tree microhabitats - field reference list. Integrate+ Technical Paper No. 13. 16 p. European Forest Institute (2016). App: Lisa Apfelbacher (illustrations), Sebastian Walker and Andreas Schuck (design), walkermedia systems (development).

Kraus, D., Bütler, R., Krumm, F., Lachat, T., Larrieu, L., Mergner, U., Paillet, Y., Rydkvist, T., Schuck, A., and Winter, S., 2016. Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list. Integrate+ Technical Paper 13. 16 p.

Kraus, D., Mergner, U., Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Haussmann, T., 2016. Integrate+: Wieviel Narurschutz kann der bewirtschaftete Wald leisten? Der Dauerwald – Zeitschrift für naturgemäβe Waldwirtschaft. Ausgabe 54, August 2016.  33-38.

Krumm, F., Lachat T., Schuck, A.,  Bütler, R., Kraus, D., 2019. Marteloskope als Trainingstools zur Förderung und Erhaltung von Habitatbäumen im Wald. Schweizerische Z. Forstwes. 170 (2019) 2: 86-93.

Larrieu, L., Paillet, Y, Winter, S., Bütler, R., Kraus, D., Krumm, F, Lachat, T, Michel, A., Regnery, B., Vandekerkhove, K. 2018. Tree related microhabitats in temperate and Mediterranean European forests: A hierarchical typology for inventory standardization. Ecological Indicators 84: 194–207.

Pyttel P., Kraus, D., Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Bauhus, J., 2018. Mit „Marteloskopen“ lehren und lernen. AFZ-DerWald 4/2018. 26 – 29.

Rojo Serrano, L. 2019. Incorporación de España a la red Europea para la integración de la protección de la biodiversidad en la gestión forestal - Red Integrate (Incorporation of Spain into the European Network INTEGRATE which promotes and advances forest management approaches for the integration of nature conservation into sustainable forest management - Network Integrate). Subdirección General de Políti ca Forestal y Lucha contra la Desertificación. Dirección General de Biodiversidad, Bosques y Desertificación. Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico. Technical Report. 92 p. (PDF)

Santopuoli G., di Cristofaro M., Kraus D., Schuck A., Lasserre B., Marchetti M., 2019. Biodiversity conservation and wood production in a Natura 2000 Mediterranean forest. A trade-off evaluation focused on the occurrence of microhabitats. iForest 12: 76-84. – doi: 10.3832/ifor2617-011 [online 2019-01-24]

Schuck, A., Kraus, D., 2018. Marteloskope und Bedeutung der Baum-Mikrohabitate. AFZ-DerWald Nr. 3/2018. S. 12.

Schuck, A., Kraus, D., Krumm, F., Held, A., Schmitt, H., 2015. Integrate+ Marteloscopes – Calibrating silvicultural decision making. Integrate+ Technical Paper No. 1. 12 p.

Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Kraus, D., 2015. Integrate+ Marteloscopes - Description of parameters and assessment procedures. Integrate+ Technical Paper No. 18. 16 p.