Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)

1) FAQ's 'I+ Trainer' (PDF)


I+ Software User Manuals

2) 'I+ Trainer' User Manual

English (PDF)

Finnish (PDF)

German (PDF)

Spanish (PDF


3) 'I+ Manager' User Manual (PDF)



4) Marteloscope contact list (PDF)


5) Virtual Marteloscope visits

Based on the principle of "google street view", enables virtual tours through forests. For this purpose, selected forests are photographically documented and archived over several years. Users of this internet platform can then visit these forests digitally at any time and from any location, as if they were in situ. thus represents a kind of virtual library of the forest, opening up completely new perspectives for potential users in practice, research and education.

Financially supported by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) four Integrate Network marteloscope sites were photographically documented by the Bern University of Applied Sciences (HAFL) who has developed this innovative technique.

We encourage you to take a tour through the four sites but also many others available at the links ‘’ and ‘’. In case you would like to know more about virtual forest visits please feel free to contact us or get more information on the websites or directly from the developers at HAFL.



i)    Marteloscope Jägerhäuschen (State Forest Enterprise Rhein-Sieg-Erft, North-Rhine Westfalia, Germany)

ii)   Marteloscope Rosskopf (Freiburg City Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany)

iii)  Marteloscope Mooswald (Freiburg City Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany)

iv)  Marteloscope Behleneiche (Community Forest Kandern, Baden-Württemberg, Germany)

Many more virtual forest visits can be found at:  (English, German and French) (English, German and French)

There are YouTube tutorials available which explain how to use the software (e.g. for habitat.sylvotheque) in English, German and French


6) Tree Microhabitat Catalogue

 The catalogue offers an accessible typology for identifying small and valuable structures for biodiversity. It was developed by a experts and serves as a field guide. The vast array of existing tree microhabitats (TreMs) is subdivided into a few concise categories of saproxylic (cavities, injuries and wounds, bark, deadwood) and epixylic (deformations, epiphytes, nests) structures that can serve as shelter or home for different flora and fauna. TreMs are input for elaborating a habitat value for each tree in a Marteloscope. This information can be retrieved in the course of field exercises using the I+ software. It is available in the following languages:


Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, North Macedonian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish and Ukrainian

7) The tree microhabitat catalogue App

The phone App was developed as a mobile field support for identifying biodiversity relevant tree microhabitat structures. Its content mirrors the tree microhabitat catalogue and is currently available in the following languages: Czech, English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese. The App is freely available and runs on Android and Apple devices.

Google Play Store (Link)

App Store (Link)


8) Marteloscope Data Entry Sheet: template for submitting marteloscope dataset to 'I+ Data Repository' (XLS)


9) Marteloscope exercises – 'guidance for trainers' (PDF)


10) How to set up a marteloscope (PDF)


11) Activity fact sheets of events around marteloscopes

        - April 2017 to April 2020 (PDF)

        - December 2013 to March 2017 (PDF)


All videos can be accessed through this link:

- "Wise use of our forests: the integrative approach" - 23-minute feature film in three languages (English, German and French). Subtitles are also available in Spanish, Catalan and Italian.

-  "Be a forester for a day!" - 2-minute video available in English, German and Spanish

-  "Virtual field trip: marteloscopes" - 6-minute video in English


Links to related projects 

- "Projekt Dauerwald“ coordinated by Arbeitsgemeinschaft Naturgemäße Waldwirtschaft (ANW) - Bundesverband Deutschland (Website in German). Marteloscopes were established and training conducted (project completed)

- The project "Establishment of five marteloscopes in Luxembourg" was implemented for Pro Silva Luxembourg (project completed)

"GoProFor" (EU Life+): GoProFor aimed at "distilling" the good practices from LIFE projects of forestry interest realized throughout the European Union between 1992 and 2018. Martelsocopes and the I+ software were applied in GoProFor (project completed)

- "Saproxylic Habitat Network (LifeSpan)"(EU Life+). Martloscope sites are established, training courses provided (ongoing) 

- "Integrate" - Metsänomistajien päätöksenteon tuki muuttuvassa toimintaympäristössä establishes marteloscopes in North Karelia, develops new software modules and conducts field training (ongoing)

- EU H2020 "HoliSoils" - Holistic management practices, modelling & monitoring for European forest Soils (ongoing)

- "Martelkom" Den Wald vor lauter Bäumen sehen. Marteloskope als Forschungs- und Kommunikationsinstrument für integrative Waldwirtschaft – und Etablierung eines demoskopischen „Waldbarometers“ in Deutschland (ongoing)



Cosyns, H., Joa, B., Mikoleit, R., Krumm, F., Schuck, A., Winkel, G., Schulz, T., 2020. Resolving the trade-off between production and biodiversity conservation in integrated forest management: comparing tree selection practices of foresters and conservationistsBiodiversity and Conservation. 

Cosyns, H., Kraus, D., Krumm, F., Schulz, T., Pyttel, P., 2018. Reconciling the trade-off between economic and ecological objectives in habitat-tree selection: A comparison between students, foresters and forestry trainers. Forest Science. Volume 65. Issue 2. 223–234.

Courbaud B., Larrieu, L., Kozak, D., Kraus, D., Lachat, T., Ladet, S., Müller, J., Paillet, Y., Sageb-Talebi, K., Schuck, A., Stillhard, J., Svoboda, M., Zudin, S., 2021. Factors influencing the formation rate of tree related microhabitats and implications for biodiversity conservation and forest management. Journal of Applied Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.14068 

Derks, J., Schuck, A., O’Brien, L. (2022). Forest education with marteloscopes. Integrate Network Report. European Forest Institute (GeneralSchools)

Integrate+, 2013. What are marteloscopes? Integrate+ project handout. 2p. (PDF)

Integrate+, 2014. Integrate+ software tables - hardware specifications. Integrate+ booklet. 4p. (PDF)

Joa, B., Paulus, A., Mikoleit, R., Winkel, G., 2020. Decision Making in Tree Selection – Contemplating Conflicting Goals via Marteloscope Exercises. Rural Landscapes: Society, Environment, History, 7(1): 3, 1–14. DOI:

Kraus, D., Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Bütler, R., Cosyns, H., Courbaud, B., Larrieu, L., Mergner, U., Pyttel, P., Varis, S., Wilhelm, G., Witz, M., Zenner, E. and Zudin, S., 2018. Seeing is building better understanding - the Integrate+ marteloscopes. Integrate+ Technical Report. Marteloscopes (2018) 26:3. (Link to download)

Kraus, D., Schuck, A., 2017. Wise use of our forests: the integrative approach. Integrate+ Film script.

Kraus, D., Schuck, A., 2016. Mikrohabitatstrukturen im Wald: Ein Schlüssel zur Erhaltung von gefährdeten Arten. Anliegen Natur 38 (1), 2016. 99 – 101.

Kraus, D., Bütler, R., Krumm, F., Lachat, T., Larrieu, L., Mergner, U., Paillet, Y., Rydkvist, T., Schuck, A., and Winter, S., 2016. Smart phone application: Catalogue of tree microhabitats - field reference list. App contents derived from: Catalogue of tree microhabitats - field reference list. Integrate+ Technical Paper No. 13. 16 p. European Forest Institute, 2016. App: Lisa Apfelbacher (illustrations), Sebastian Walker and Andreas Schuck (design), walkermedia systems (development).

Kraus, D., Bütler, R., Krumm, F., Lachat, T., Larrieu, L., Mergner, U., Paillet, Y., Rydkvist, T., Schuck, A., and Winter, S., 2016. Catalogue of tree microhabitats – Reference field list. Integrate+ Technical Paper 13. 16 p.

Kraus, D., Mergner, U., Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Haussmann, T., 2016. Integrate+: Wieviel Naturschutz kann der bewirtschaftete Wald leisten? Der Dauerwald – Zeitschrift für naturgemäβe Waldwirtschaft. Ausgabe 54, August 2016.  33-38.

Krumm, F., Schuck, A., Rigling, A. (eds), 2020. How to balance forestry and biodiversity conservation – a view across Europe. European Forest Institute (EFI); Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmendorf. 644 p. (Link to download)

       - Book reviews (in German): (1) Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen: 74 (2023) 1: 44–60 (PDF); (2) standort.wald: 52 (2022), 75-91 (PDF)

Krumm, F., Rigling, A., Bollman, K., Brang, P., Dürr, C., Gessler, A., Schuck, A., Schulz-Marty T., Winkel, G., 2020. Synthesis: Improving biodiversity conservation in European managed forests needs pragmatic, courageous, and regionally-rooted management approaches. In Krumm, F., Schuck, A., Rigling, A. (eds): How to balance forestry and biodiversity conservation – A view across Europe. European Forest Institute (EFI); Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmendorf. 608-633. (Link to download)

Krumm, F., Bollmann, K., Brang, P., Schulz-Marty, T., Küchli, C., Schuck, A., Rigling, A., 2020. Context and solutions for integrating nature conservation into forest management: an overview. In Krumm, F., Schuck, A., Rigling, A. (eds): How to balance forestry and biodiversity conservation – A view across Europe. European Forest Institute (EFI); Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmendorf. 10-25. (Link to download)

Krumm, F., Lachat T., Schuck, A.,  Bütler, R., Kraus, D., 2019. Marteloskope als Trainingstools zur Förderung und Erhaltung von Habitatbäumen im Wald. Schweizerische Z. Forstwes. 170 (2019) 2: 86-93.

Larrieu, L., Courbaud, B., Drénou, C., Goulard, M., Bütler, R., Kozák, D., Kraus, D., Krumm, F., Lachat, T., Müller, J., Paillet, Y., Schuck, A., Stillhard, J., Svoboda, M., Vandekerkhove, K., 2022. Key factors determining the presence of Tree-related Microhabitats: A synthesis of potential factors at site, stand and tree scales, with perspectives for further research. Forest Ecology and Management, Volume 515 (2022) 120235. (PDF).

Larrieu, L., Cabanettes, A., Courbaud, B., Goulard, M., Heintz, W., Kozák, D., Kraus, D., Lachat, T., Ladet, S., Müller, J., Paillet, Y., Schuck, A., Stillhard, J., Svoboda, M., 2021. Co-occurrence patterns of tree-related microhabitats: A method to simplify routine monitoring. Ecological Indicators 127 (2021) 107757. 1-10.

Larrieu, L., Paillet, Y, Winter, S., Bütler, R., Kraus, D., Krumm, F, Lachat, T, Michel, A., Regnery, B., Vandekerkhove, K., 2018. Tree related microhabitats in temperate and Mediterranean European forests: A hierarchical typology for inventory standardization. Ecological Indicators 84: 194–207.

O’Brien, L., Schuck, A., 2022. Active restoration practices for biodiversity conservation in managed forests. A review of the literature with a European focus. Integrate Network Report. European Forest Institute. 26 p. (PDF)

O’Brien, L., Derks, J., Schuck, A., 2022. The use of marteloscopes in science: a review of past research and suggestions for further application. Integrate Network Report. European Forest Institute. 26 p. (PDF)

O’Brien, L., Schuck, A., Fraccaroli, C., Pötzelsberger, E., Winkel, G. and Lindner, M., 2021: Protecting old-growth forests in Europe - a review of scientific evidence to inform policy implementation. Final report. European Forest Institute. (Link to download)

Pommer, A., Schuck, A., Hamm, T, 2021. Marteloskope als Schulungsflächen in Sachsens Staatswald. Der Dauerwald – Zeitschrift für naturgemäβe Waldwirtschaft. Ausgabe 64. 32-34.

Pyttel P., Kraus, D., Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Bauhus, J., 2018. Mit „Marteloskopen“ lehren und lernen. AFZ-DerWald 4/2018. 26-29.

Rojo Serrano, L., 2019. Incorporación de España a la red Europea para la integración de la protección de la biodiversidad en la gestión forestal - Red Integrate (Incorporation of Spain into the European Network INTEGRATE which promotes and advances forest management approaches for the integration of nature conservation into sustainable forest management - Network Integrate). Subdirección General de Políti ca Forestal y Lucha contra la Desertificación. Dirección General de Biodiversidad, Bosques y Desertificación. Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico. Technical Report. 92 p. (PDF)

Santopuoli G., di Cristofaro M., Kraus D., Schuck A., Lasserre B., Marchetti M., 2019. Biodiversity conservation and wood production in a Natura 2000 Mediterranean forest. A trade-off evaluation focused on the occurrence of microhabitats. iForest 12: 76-84. – doi: 10.3832/ifor2617-011 [online 2019-01-24]

Schuck, A., Kraus, D., Krumm, F., Zudin, S., 2020. Marteloscopes – a key instrument for fact-based learning, understanding, and the exchange of knowledge on forests and their management (Box C4). In Krumm, F., Schuck, A., Rigling, A. (eds): How to balance forestry and biodiversity conservation – A view across Europe. European Forest Institute (EFI); Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmendorf. 256-258. (Link to download)

Schuck, A. and Nikinmaa, L., 2020. Monitavotteinen metsänhoito vastaa vaatimusten kirjoon (“Multiobjective forest management answers to the different demands”). H. Mattila (Ed.), Elämän verkko: Luonnon monimuotoisuutta edistämässä (“The net of life: enhancing biodiversity”). (1 ed., pp. 260-270). Gaudeamus.

Schuck, A., Kraus, D., 2018. Marteloskope und Bedeutung der Baum-Mikrohabitate. AFZ-DerWald Nr. 3/2018. S. 12.

Schuck, A., Kraus, D., Krumm, F., Held, A., Schmitt, H., 2015. Integrate+ Marteloscopes – Calibrating silvicultural decision making. Integrate+ Technical Paper No. 1. 12 p. Available in (PDF EN) and (PDF DE).

Schuck, A., Krumm, F., Kraus, D., 2015. Integrate+ marteloscopes - Description of parameters and assessment procedures. Integrate+ Technical Paper No. 18. 16 p. (PDF)

Spatially explicit database of tree related microhabitats (TreMs), 2020. Hosted at the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

Stahl, L-M., Hein, S., 2022. Erstes Plenterwald-Marteloskop im Privatwald eingerichtet. AFZ-Der Wald 11/22. 41-44. (PDF)

Zudin, S., Heintz, W., Kraus, D., Krumm, F., Larrieu, L., Schuck, A., 2022. A spatiallyexplicit database of tree-related microhabitats in Europe and beyond. Biodiversity Data Journal 10: e91385.


Bachelor and Master theses

Lukas Franz Dörfel, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development,thesis title: Anlage und Erstanalyse eines Marteloskops – Buchen-Eichen-Mischbestand – im Forstbezirk Eibenstock (Bachelor thesis)

Jonas Fiedler, Faculty Environmental Science - Technischen Universität Dresden, thesis title: Überführung von Fichtenreinbeständen in Bergmischwälder zum Anfassen: Anlage, Auswertung und Auszeichnung einer Marteloskop-Sequenz im Erzgebirge. (Master thesis; large file!)

Isabel Anna Fichtner, Faculty Environmental Science - Technische Universität Dresden, thesis title: Das Marteloskop Tharandter Wald: ein waldbauliches Übungsinstrument für eine nachhaltige und integrative Waldbewirtschaftung (Master thesis)

Jan Heimer, University of Freiburg, thesis title: Das Marteloskop Rosskopf als Grundlage zur Beurteilung von betriebswirtschaftlichen und naturschutzfachlichen Aspekten im Bergmischwald (Master thesis)

Prescott Huntley Brownell II, University of Copenhagen, Modeling of Carbon Balance using Conifer and Broadleaf Marteloscope Sites in Denmark (Master thesis)   

Matteo Marcandella, Haute Ecole Condorcet (Belgium), thesis title: Installation de marteloscopes à objectif « futaie irrégulière » en Forêt de Soignes (Master thesis)

Konstantin von Gemmingen-Guttenberg, Hochschule für Forstwirtschaft Rottenburg, thesis title: Einrichtung eines Marteloskops in einer Naturwaldentwicklungsfläche der Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg’schen Verwaltung (Bachelor thesis)

Robin Schürg, University of Freiburg: Das Marteloskop Mooswald als Grundlage zur Beurteilung von betriebswirtschaftlichen und naturschutzfachlichen Aspekten in ehemaligen Eichen-Mittelwäldern (Master thesis).

Marie Wittmer-Eigenbrodt, Fachhochschule Erfurt (University of Applied Sciences), thesis title: Einrichtung und Behandlunsempfehlung eines Marteloskops im Revier Calden (Bachelor thesis)